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UGC NET PAPER – II and Paper – III (A) [ CORE GROUP ]

Unit — I

General characteristics of Visual art / Fundamentals of visual art : Space, form, size, shape, line, colour, texture, tonal values, perspective, design and aesthetic organization of visual elements in art object ( composition ). The uses of two and three dimensions in visual art. Tactile quality in art. Environment and art. Perceptual and conceptual aspects in art.

Unit — II

Interrelationship of various arts : Rhythm, structure, use of space, visual properties, materials, techniques ( traditional and modern ), ideas, themes ( narrative and non – narrative ) conceptual, abstract elements between performing, cinematic, literary and plastic art.

Unit — III

Traditional and Modem mediums and materials in making visual arts : Painting, sculpture, print – making, mural, graphic design and multimedia art. Inventions, adoptations and development of these mediums and materials from the pre – historic period to present-day all over the world.

Unit — IV

Traditional and Modem techniques, processes and procedures, used in making painting, sculpture, print – making, mural, graphic design and multimedia art, such as modeling, carving, building, casting, different way of handling of colour pigment ( like impasto, glazing, burnishing, drip ), etching, relief, surface printing, fresco buono. fresco secco, etc. Printing processes including computer graphic, etc.

Unit — V

Relevance of the study of the history of world art ( including history of advertising and marketing ) for the students of Visual Arts in general and Art History as an area of specialization.

Unit — VI

Relevance of the study of aesthetic and critical theories of art for the students of Visual Arts ( including students of Applied Arts ) and students of Art History and Art Criticism specialization.

Unit — VII

Study of landmark phases and artists in Western Art History from Pre – Historic times to Contemporary phase from the point of view of ideology, materials, techniques, style, themes, formal and stylistic development.

Unit — VIII

Study of various phases of Indian Art History from Pre – Historic times to 18th century ( including the history of advertisement ) from the point of view of general formal and stylistic features and development of ideology, materials technique and themes.

Unit — IX

Development of modernity in 19th and 20th century. Indian art ( including Applied Arts ) with special reference to various art movements, medium, styles, individual artist’s contributions in different regions of the country. The development of art education from the British Art Schools till the contemporary period.

Unit — X

The significance of the study of Tribal, Folk and Popular arts and craft practices from all over the world for the modem artists ( including Applied Arts ) from the point of form, technique, content and concepts.

UGC NET Paper – III ( B ) [ ELECTIVE / OPTIONAL ]

Elective — I : Art History

1. Indian Sculpture

Formal and stylistic aspects of sculpture in Indus Valley of Mauryan Sunga, Satvahana, Kushana ( Mathura and Gandhara ), Gupta ( Buddhist, Brahmanical and Jain ), Chalukya, Gurjara Pratihara, Pallava, Chola, Rashtrakuta, Hoysala, Kakatiya, Pala-Sena, Orissan, Solanki and Paramara periods.

2. Indian Architecture

Formal and stylistic aspects of architecture in Indus Valley of stupas ( Bharhut, Sanchi, Amaravati, Samath ) of cave temples, ( Bhaja, Karle, Ajanta, Nasik, Lomas Rishi, Kanheri, etc. ), Gupta ( Udayagiri, Deogarh, Nachna, etc. ), Ghalukya ( Badami, Aihole, Pattadakal, etc. ), Pallava ( Mahabalipuram, Kanchipuram, etc. ), Rashtrakuta ( Ellora ), Guijara Pratihara, Saindhava — Maitraka, Chandela ( Khajuraho ), Orissa ( Bhubaneswar, Konarak ), Chola ( Tanjore and Gangaikonda Cholapuram, Darasuram, etc. ), Hoysala ( Belur, Halibid, etc. ), Kakatiya, Kalayan, Chalukvas. Solanki ( Modhera. Rani Ki vav etc. ), Paramara, Nayuka and Vijayanagar ( Hampi Lepakshi ). Islamic architecture; Sultanate and Mughal; Mandu, Delhi, Agra, Fathepur Sikri.

3. Indian Painting

Formal and stylistic aspects of pre – historic, Ajanta, Bagh and later mural tradition, Manuscript painting ( Eastern Indian and Western Indian ), Sultanate ( Mandu ) Chourapanchasika style and other pre – Mughal schools, Mughal ( Akbar to Shahjahan ), Rajasthani ( Mewar, Bundi, Kotah, Bikaneer, Jaipur, Kishangarh, etc. ), Malwa, Pahari ( Basholi, Guler, Kangra ) and Deccani ( Ahmednagar, Bijapur and Golkonda ) schools.

4. Indian Iconography

Antiquity of image worship, development of the cult of Vishnu, Shiva and Shakti and various forms of their iconography, Sapta – matrika, Lakshmi, Surya, Yaksha, Ganesha and Kartikeya. Hindu temple and iconography ( Ashta ) ( Dikpalas, River Goddesses, etc. ), Buddhist narratives ( Jataka tales and life of Buddha ) origin and development of Buddha image and Bodhisatvas ( Avalokiteshwara, Maitreya, Ashtamahabhayatarana, Avalokiteswara, Manjushri Tara and Kubera / Panchika. Iconography of Tirthankaras ( Rishabhanatha, Mahavira, Parshvanatha, Neminatha ), Bahubali, Jaina Yaksha and Yakshi, Ambika, syncretic images, etc. Narratives in Medieval painting ( Gitagovinda, Ramayana, Laurchanda, Ragamala, Rasamanjari, Kalpasutra and Kalakachaiya Katha, etc. ).

5. Aesthetics and Art Critical History

General principles of Indian art, art and beauty, principles of image making ( iconometry and other canons ), six limbs of Indian painting ( shadanga ) and six Chinese canons of painting, theories of Rasa, Dhvani, Alankara, Auchitya and Riti, and their relevance in understanding art making and viewing. Interrelationship of visual and performing art. Classification of painting in Chitrasutra. Concepts of Kshyavridhi, Guna – dosha, Sadrishya, Vartana, Nimnonata, etc. Visible and invisible aspects of art ( Drishyam / Adrishyam ), Rekha ( Line ) and Linear rhythm ( Chanda ) compositional aspects of art, perspective, form and content. Textual sources ( Vishnu dharmottara, Brihatsamhita and other Silpasastra texts ). Kashmiri aestheticians.

Distinctions and overlap between the scope of Art History, Art Criticism, and Aesthetic theories. Interrelationship between Art History, Anthropology, Archaeology, Cultural History and Philology. Development of Art History as a discipline. Connoiseurship and catalogue raissone. Development of formalism ( Wolfflin, Reigl, Roger Fry, Greenberg ), Iconology ( Gombrich and Panofsky ), Visual perception ( Rudolf Amheim ) and New Art History ( Bryson, Hal Foster ). Ananda Coomaraswamy and Stella Kramrisch and their relevance in the Indian Art Historical Studies.

Western approaches to art and aesthetics : Plato, Aristotle, Alberti, Vasari, Bellori, Reynolds, Diderot, Wincklemann, Croce, Tolstoy, etc. Writing by artists and manifestos of modem art movements. Theory of Avant – Garde. Implication of theories of Semiotics, Structuralism, Post – structuralism, Post – modernism and Feminism on Art thinking and writing.

6. European Art ( Landmarks of Architecture Sculpture and Painting )

Pre – historic art ( France and Spain ), Cretan, Greek, Roman, Etruscan, Early Christian, Byzantine, Gothic, Renaissance, Mannerist, Baroque, Neo – Classicism, Romanticism, Realism,. Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Symbolism, Fauvism, Cubism, Expressionism and different abstract trends. Futurism, Dadaism, Surrealism, Abstract Expressionism, Op, Pop, Mininimal, Neo – figuration and various art developments in Post-modern period ( Italian Trans – avantgarde, German Neo – expressionism, Happening, Installation, Feminist and Gay art.

7. Art and Architecture of Ancient Near East

The art of Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Sumerian Akkadian, Assyrian, Achaemanid, Minoan and Sassanian cultures.

8. Art and Architecture of the Orient

The art Far Eastern ( Chinese and Japanese ), Islamic, Central Asia, Nepal, Tibet. Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Java, Siam and Burma.

9. Modern Indian Art

Company School, Bazar Painting, British Art Schools, Kalighat Painting, Raja Ravi Varma and followers. Neo – Bengal School ( ‘Revivalism’ and early modernists ) : Abanindranath Tagore and disciples, Nandalal Bose, Benode Behari Mukheijee, Ramkinkar Baij, Rabindranath Tagore, Gaganendranath Tagore, Jamini Roy and others. Role of Santiniketan in art education.

Academic / Professional sculptors and painters; Mahatre, Talim, D.P. Roy Choudhuri, Dhurandar, Hemen Majumdar, Thakur Singh, etc. Early modernists : Amrita Shergil, Karmarkar, George Keyt. Art in 1940’s and 50’s : Bengal famine and artists ( Somnath Hore, Chittaprasad, Zainul Abedin, Gobardhan Ash, Sudhir Khastgir ), Progressive art movements in Calcutta, Madras, Bombay and Delhi. International Modernism and artists : F.N. Souza, Pradosh Dasgupta, K.C.S. Panikkar, B.C. Sanyal, Dinkar Kaushik, Nirode Majumdar, Paritosh Sen, M.F. Husain, Akbar Padamsee, Ramkumar and others. Independent Artists : N.S. Bendre, K.K. Hebbar, Shankho Choudhuri, Krishna Reddy, Dhanraj Bhagat, Y.K. Shukla, Piloo Poochkhanwala, V.S. Gaitonde. Santhanraj, Davierwala and others.

Art in 1960’s and 70’s Indigenist trends in painting, sculpture, mural and print – making; K. G. Subramanyam, K. C. S. Panikkar ( Cholamandal artists village ), Reddappa Naidu, S.B. Palsikar, Janaki Ram, Meera Mukherjee, Jyoti Bhatt, J. Swaminathan, Neo-Tantric art, etc. Figurative-Narrative trend since 1960’s; Bikash Bhattacharjee, Ganesh Pyne, A. Ramachandran, R.B. Bhaskaran, Lakshma Goud, Jogan Choudhuri, Bhupen Khakhar, Anjole Ela Menon, Arpita Singh, Gogi Saroj Pal, Arpana Kaur, Vivan Sundaram and others. Trend of Abstraction since 1960’s : Raghav Kaneria, Jairam Patel, P. Barwe, Ram Kumar, L. Munnuswamy, P. V. Kolte, Jagmohar Chopra, Balbir Singh Katt, Nagji Patel.

Development of Installation, Multimedia, Performative, Happening Art : Nalini Malatni, Ved Nayar, Vivan Sundaram and others.

Tribal, Folk and Popular Art ( Including Design and Functional Art )

African, Oceanic, North-West Coast American, Mexican, Indian, South – East Asian Art.

India : Pata painting ( Rajasthan, Bengal, Orissa ), Madhubani, Warii, Pithoro painting. Dokra bronzes, terracotta horses ( Gujarat, U.P., Bengal, M.P., Tamil Nadu ), wood carving ( Kondappalli, Karnataka ( Bhuta ), Bengal, M.P. ), Leather Puppets ( A.P., Karnataka ). Indian traditional and modem design and functional arts : Textiles — Benaras, Kanchipuram. Gujarat Brocade, Baluchari, Dacca Malmal, Paithaini, Katki and textiles of North – Eastern States. Tie and Die fabrics, embroideries ( Phulkari, Chamba Rumal, Kantha ), Metalware ( Bidari, rapousse, enamelling ), jade, beads, jewellery and other.

Elective — II : Drawing and Painting

Knowledge of principal elements, perspective values, fundamentals of paintings. Visual principles, Form, space, illusion, image. Chronology of the development of ideas. Visual reality, conceptual reality. Tradition and the gradual development of the art of combining the elements of ideas of different visual arts specialization.

Media and materials and their use, sketching and drawing. Application of materials, oil painting — Alla Prima and old master process, glazing and scumbling, priming of canvas, different types of oil, brushing etc. Tempera and Gouache and their uses in painting in both traditional and non-traditional art. Wash method on paper and silk, Acrylic, pastel, mixed media, water colour mural and mural techniques — Fresco secco and Buono fresco, Ajanta and different modem media relief and mixed media in mural.

Collage, Encaustic Wax
Supports in Painting ( Canvas, paper, wood, silk, etc. )

Types of paintings, open air paintings, portrait paintings, study of head and full length figures, male and female. Landscape paintings, patronised art. paintings under different art movements, still life, thematic, abstract, etc.

Principles of compositions, reflection of artists personal views, development of concept. Process of creative paintings. Expression of ideas under some aesthetical and philosophical views. Artistic expression during different social and structural changes. Art and Changes.

Application of techniques, colours and colour theory and the application of colour theory in art activities. Colour harmony, traditional application of colour and the application of colour with reasoning.

Colour preparation, texture, technical aspect of pigment. Sources and influences of various traditions. Study and understanding of artistic value, construction of forms, shapes, planes, volume and totality, understanding of two and three dimensional approaches and the purpose.

Relevance of the study of aesthetics in Fine Arts / Visual Arts. The early Philosophical thoughts in Indian Culture. Nature and function of works of art in society. Concepts of Rasa, Sadanga, Dhvani, Alankara, etc., in traditional art. Concept of art and beauty, idea, imagination, intuition form and content, sublime, sympathy, empathy, creativity allegory, myth. Philosophy and aesthetical views of Kant, Hegel, etc.

Pre – historic Indian Painting, Classical Indian Paintings. Mural ( Ajanta, Bagh ) and later Mural traditions. Manuscript Painting, Miniature Painting, Folk and Tribal Paintings.

Company school of paintings, Raja Ravi Verma, Bengal School under Abanindranath and his disciples ( Kshitindra Nath Majumdar, Samarendranath Gupta, K. Venkatappa, Abdul Rahman Chughtai, Ashit Kr. Haider, Nandalal, etc. )

Nandalal and his disciples ( Ramkinkar, Binod Bihari, Dhirendrakrishna Dev Varma, etc. )

Amrita Shergil, Academic Realism, Calcutta Group ( Paritosh Sen, Gobardhan Ash, Nirode Majumdar, Pradosh Dasgupta, Hemanta Mishra, etc. )

Major trends in contemporary Indian Art since, 1947.

Major phases in Western Painting, Greeco – Roman, Byzantine, Gothic, Renaissance ( background of Renaissance, Humanism and the intentions and discoveries of the evolution of personal style of Early Renaissance and High Renaissance ), Baroque and Rococo ( background, conception with some important artists activities ).

Neo – classicism, Romanticism, Neo-Realism, Impressionism Post – impressionism, Cubism, Fauvism, Futurism, Dadaism, Surrealism, Abstract Art, Abstract Expressionism Op, Pop, Neo – figuration, Art in Post – modern time.

Elective — III : Applied Art

Importance of Applied Art in Visual Communication in relation to various media, Consumer and Producer.

Understanding of all the elements of an advertising design/graphic design such as typography and calligraphy ( Headline, copy ), photography, illustration mnemonics, logo and symbol, punch line / base line / slogan, etc.

Conventional animation ( Cell animation ) and Modem animation ( Computer animation 2D and 3D ), Application of computer graphics in creating special effects. Its reactions and response from viewer.

Visualization — Research sources of visualization, collection of information material and ideas, selection of USP. development of concepts and final decision of selecting the media.

Outdoor advertising — Its importance in communication. Various kinds of media of outdoor advertising with its advantage over other media. Advertising ethics and censoring in using outdoor media.

Advertising campaign — Product ( package designing for the surface of container, to start with ), Corporate / Government and Social awareness. Suggestion of media according to the approach towards the target audience. Name all the media available. Innovation in Media. New technologies ( computer, digital printers, etc. ), TV Graphics, Multimedia presentation, Web – page designing and understanding of all the softwares ( pagemaker, corel draw, photoshop, free – hand, dream weaver; 3D studio, etc. ), Internet, its use in advertising products and services, net marketing.

Organization of advertising agencies : Study of advertising management, setting up studio. Role and responsibilities of a Graphic designer. Art Director, Visualizer, Creative head, service department and copywriters. Creative director / creative head and copywriter, their interaction in developing concepts. Modem studio in present scenario—computer, printers and scanners, etc.

Interaction with other arts i.e., sculptors, painters, set designers and event management agencies.

History of advertising from early civilizations. Invention of moveable types. Development of printing processes : Letterpress, off – set gravure, silk-screen, embossing, thermography, etc.

Computers and its role in creating new visual effects. Importance of market research in advertising. History of Indian advertising and different media. History of printing in India. Print media vs Electronic Media.

Future of advertising in India. Entry of Multinationals and Indian Advertising. Top grade Advertising Agencies such as HTA Lintas, Mudra, O and M, etc. and their approaches.

Colonial paintings, Raja Ravi Verma, Bengal School, Abanindranath and his disciples, Nandlal Bose, Amrita Shergil and his disciples, Academic realism, Progressive Schools, Major Trends in Contemporary Indian Art.

Major phases in Western Painting, Greeco – Roman, Byzantine, Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque and Rococo Neo – classicism, Romanticisms, Neo – realism, Impressionism, Post – impressionism, Cubism, Futurism, Dadaism, Surrealism, Abstraction, Abstract Expression Op, Pop, Neo – figuration, Art in Post – modern time.

Elective — IV : Graphic Art ( Print – making )

Fundamental of Visual Arts : Line, texture, volumes, space, colour, compositions.

Definition of Graphics — Print – making

Difference with other Art Forms

Brief history of printing

Knowledge of principle elements of print – making

  1. Surface ( relief and planography )
  2. Intaglio
  3. Stencil
  4. Other mediums — Computer Graphics Paper – making ( Dimensional Prints ) Colography / Colagraphy / Chinecolle / Monoprint / Unique Print.

Surface : Relief

  • Invention
  • Media – woodcut, wood engraving, woodcut ( far Eastern ), Lino – cut and Lino etching
  • Material — Wood and Linoleum
  • Tools — Chemicals — Inks — Printing Machines
  • Approach to design — (i) Light to dark, (ii) Reduction method ( Dark to light )
  • Printing Methods — (i) Single block multicolour printing, (ii) Multiblock multicolour printing

Surface : Lithography

Media : Invention Lithography, Offset Printing, Oleograph

Material and Equipments—Stone and Plate — Tools Chemical — Inks — Press — Photograph — Enlargers

Techniques : Grinding, Graining; Image making — Drawing, Photo – transfer. Litho – engraving ( tools or hone pencils ), Reverse / Re – reverse technique etc. Etching, Registration, Printing ( Single block multicolour and Multi – block multicolour methods ).

Offset Printing :

  • Invention
  • Direct and Indirect process
  • Image making : Hand – drawing and Photo-transfer

Material and Equipments : Ink — Chemicals — Press

Printing Method : Direct and Indirect Pictorial and formal qualities of Litho and Offset

  • Intaglio
  • Invention
  • Media — Drypoint, Engraving, Mezzotint Etching, Wood Intaglio, Viscosity
  • Materials – Plates : Metal, Acrylic, Wood and Sunmica, etc., Chemicals – Tools – Plate – making — Image making — Manual and Photo – transfer process.Approach to design Light to dark
  • Dark to light Characteristics of Prints in different intaglio techniques Stencil : Handcut stencil and Silkscreen ( Serigraphy ) Handcut stencil — Method and materials Silkscreen ( Serigraphy ) — materials ( screen ) : Silk, Nylon and Polyurithin Tools : Squeezee, frame, exposing table, printing table Chemicals — Inks and other equipments Printing methods : Manual and Mechanical

Other Mediums

Computer Graphics :

  • Direct printout from printer
  • Indirect use ( Computer – generated images made to transfer on other print – making mediums )
  • Paper – making ( dimensional print )
  • Materials
  • Machines and tools : Beater, tray, etc.
  • Chemicals and colours Technique

Photograph / Colograph — materials — block – making — printing methods – Intaglio, Relief

  • Chinecolle — Technique
  • Monoprint — Different techniques
  • Mixed media, multimedia and others

History of printing — Asia and Europe; Manifestation and invention of different media, Printing as a communicative media — book production in 19th – 20th century, influences of advertising. Print – making atelier / workshops.

Individual artist’s contributions — Durer, Rembrandt, Hogarth, Goya, Gaugiix Degas, Lautrec, Daumiere, German Expressionists ( Kathe, Kolwitz, Nolde, Heckel, Grosz, Munch, etc. ), Picasso, Pop and figurative artists ( Roshenburg, Lichenstein, Jim Dine ), David Hockney, Krishna Reddy, Peter Dauglish, Stanley Johns.

Japanese woodcuts and Important masters of Ukiyo-E-School — Important masters as — Hokurai, Hiroshige and Utamaro Print – making in India.

  • Commercial print – making in mid 19th century
  • Print – making in Bengal in early 20th century — Battala Printing and Kalighat

Individual Artists : Raja Ravi Verma, Members of Vichitra Club, Mukul Dey, Gaganendranath Tagore, etc. Santiniketan School, Nandlal Bose, Binod Behari Mukherjee, Ramkinkar, Biswarup Bose, Ramen Chakraborty, Haren Das, Somnath Hore, Chittaprasad, Jyoti Bhatt, Kanwal Krishna, Y. K. Shukla, Vasant Parab, Jagmohan Chopra, Paramjeet Singh, Lalita Lajmi, Naina Dalai, Laxma Goud, R. B. Bhaskaran, Pallani Appan, Sanat Kar, Lalu Prasad Shaw, Amitabha Baneijee, Debraj Dakoji, Bhupen Khakar, Waman Chincolkar, Paul Koli, Dipak Banerjee, Jai Jharotia, Prayag Jha, Rini Dhumal, Anupam Sud, Jayant Parikh.

Criteria of judging good quality prints ( technically and aesthetically ) conventions to identify the authenticity of prints—signature, editions, Artists’ proof, etc. Various issues related to contemporary print – making ( mechanical reproduction, computer graphics, influences of advertising, pop-painters, print – making atelier and workshops, etc. ).

Elective — V : Sculpture

Knowledge of principle elements in the art of sculpture.

Making — Basic concepts, visual concepts, perspective know how, Fundamentals of Sculpture, Figurative and Non-Figurative Sculpture.

Media and materials : (a) Wood; different types of woods—hard and soft in fibres — black ebony to soft ( fur variety ) light coloured wood (compressed fibs). Rough and Smooth depending on grain i.e. Ebony, Sheesham, Teek, Haldu, etc.

Stones : Sculptures took centuries to develop tools and determination to carve stones. Igneous rocks are volcanic rocks give the sculpture the hardest multicoloured granites and basalts.

Sedimentary Rocks i.e., Sand-stones and lime-stones. Formed in layers over the centuries.

Limestone : Softer in cutting but textured.

Metamorphic : Sedimentary and Igneous—when heated and compressed—became harder but also translucent, sometimes and marble became V V. Popular since Greek period and Roman period and continued to produce some of the finest challenging master pieces—unique of its kind in Renaissance period of in Baroque it was pan — Excellence in use. Michelangelo’s David and Bernini’s flowing drapery and Rodin’s Kiss and later Dilwara temple in India are breathtaking examples.

Metals :

Properties of Each Metal

Why lead and zink are absent and increase in copper, etc., can be studied in detail? Which of the following is more suitable for outdoor conditions?

Terra – Cotta :

Different types of clays, varying in porosity too with mixture of fine and rough grog for better firing possibilities.

  • Earthern Ware
  • Stone Ware

Wax :

Ceramic and Porcelian and China. Addition of sand, flint, Ball clay, bentonite grog gives more plasticity and colour variation to work with.

Different types of kilns to be prepared for metal casting moulds and terracotta and ceramic.

For large moulds for metal above ground as well as under ground kilns are prepared. For ceremic V, high temperature arrangement has to be considered above 1000 °C.

Papier mache — paper pulp mixed with different kinds of fibres and clay bodies for interesting texturous results.

Plaster of Paris—used as pure medium and also mixed with other medium. Cement, bricks, sand and pebbles — combination of these.

  • Fibre glass and Resin for casting.
  • Welding and brazing
  • Light, lazer beams
  • Iron Rods
  • Bamboos and ropes
  • Waste materials like plastic bags, paper and any cans, etc.

Re – inforcement material, i.e., lead pipes, broad pipes, angle irons, binding wires, big and small nails, wooden stands, revolving and static.

Tools :

Carving Stones, evolved over centuries used as predetermined sequence by most sculptors an order that has evolved with the tools.

Pitcher used for hacking and chipping of bigger chunks.

Punch—point chisel flattened punch used for sand stones.

Claw—broad flat chisel used to flatten surfaces cleanly after the punch carving. Chisel term most commonly used for cutting dearly.

New era chisels have tungston tips to cope easily with hard granites.

Tools have to be tempered to be hard and soft acurately to be dealing with different kinds of stones.

Variety of hammers have to suit the tools — shapes and weight.

Wood carving tools — various kinds of saws, axes, band – saw, jigsaw, Bow-saw, circular saw, chainsaw, wood carving chisel, wood gauge are necessary.

Sand papers, etc., for surface treatment also follow, for polishing.

Technique used for using the various material mentioned earlier, in the making of the sculpture could be modelled, constructed caste or welded, Bronze

  1. sandcasting Metals : Brass
  2. lost wax process

Aluminium cire perdue

A hand material pattern (shape) in made, keeping in mind the feasibility of the nature, limitation of casting. Direct hollow image in created by pressing into layers of specially prepared sand with tar and jaggery, and later pouring metals into the cavity created by removing the object.

This technique preferred for flat surfaces and solid castings.

Knowledge of composition of alloys will decide the nature of runners in sand casting.

Lost Wax process—Direct wax shape building is done to create the sculpture with or without the armative. Adding Runners, and riser, sprus, on top of the surface for pouring of the metal through the funnel.

Indegenous and Italian process is used for mould making. Indegenous in the local, clay, rice husks and cowdung moulds.

Italian in the brick dust with plaster of paris & semi-fired combinations.

Types of Moulds

Waste moulds, piece moulds, and mother moulds, rubber moulds in plaster of Paris. Metal casting with more percentage of bronze is ideal for permanent outdoor placements.

Patina — the colour effect achieved by chemical reactions also seals the surfaces and preserves it.

Iron Casting :

Cast iron by sand casting

Forged iron rods by heating and beating can have exciting modelled

Effects

Terra – Cotta — Fired clay — solid shaping, hollow building by coil method — sheet beating method and wheal building

Hollow castings by using piece moulds

Pure Bees Wax, resin and parafin mixed to serve the purpose. Direct handling of wax can be cast inside waste or piece moulds for desired thickness for casting.

Papier mache—can be prepared uniformly or non-uniformly by also mixing with various other materials.

Plaster of Paris—essential for making sculpture
Direct process
Moulding
Casting of sculpture

Cement : Directly used for constructing sculptures alongwith mixing types of sand and pebbles.

Casting inside waste or piece moulds.
Ideal for outdoor

Bricks :

Used for structuring independently as well as for reinforcement. Fibre Glass Casting : For casting of shapes Translucent

Light weight is an added asset Resin Casting—transparency

Welding — Brazing — various possibilites For small and large sculptures Lenier and hollowed shapes Lights — Lazer Beams — Used for illumination As shapes

Lights juxtaposed Iron Rods : Used independently and visibly by welding As re-inforced material for strength for hidden strength Waste Materials.

Revolving tables :

Various heights, breadths Assemblage of one or more units—using same or different material Direct Shape making assemblace on computer Two D. many sides Dissecting shapes Doing calculations for convenience Sculpturesque pottery Unconventional / Design / element in Functional

  • Non – Functional pottery
  • Sculpturesque Jewellery
  • Semi – traditional
  • Modem
  • To match with modem dresses
  • Sculpturesque Industrial Designing
  • Event management by sculptors i.e., stage—marriage—functions.

History of Sculpture — Prehistoric, Egyptian, Greek, Hellenistic, Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance, Neoclassical, Indian — Mohenjodaro, Indus Valley, Maury an, Shunga, Satvahanas Chalukya, Rashtrakuta, Chola, Kushan, Individualism, Modem Sculpture.

Strong impact of Western Art, Folk Art, Tribal Art, Classical Art and Historical Art on Indian / modem contemporary Sculpture.

Contemporary sculpture, the importance of form, the impact of industrialisation, science and technology. New experiments came about such as happening, installation.

Change in the aesthetics contents of sculpture, new trends in Indian sculpture Trade in the field of sculpture.

Comparative study about different arts and problems laced by contemprary sculptors.

Indian modem Art, British colonial painting, Bengal School, Raja Ravi Verma, Academic Realism, Progressive Schools, Emergence of Art as a movement; styles and schools of Indian art; Problem of Indian contemporary Art.

i.e. : Abanindranath Tagore, Nandalal Bose, Jamini Roy, A. Shergil, Ram Kinker Vaij, Rabindranath Tagore, Chuktai, Binod, Bihari Mukherjee, Pradosh Dasgupta, Nirod Majumdar, Sankho Choudhary, N. S. Bendre, Dhanraj Bhagat, progressive artist group Calcutta and Mumbai, Sudhir Khastgir, Chitta Prasad, Dhurandhar, Thakur Singh, Mahatre.

Major Stylistic Development in Western paintings and Sculptures; Impressionism, Expresionism, Cubism, Futurism, Abstract, Surrealism, European, American and contemporary art. The indegenous material used with local influences — Palsikar, Panikar, J. Swaiiiinathan, Jankiram, Satish Gujral, Biren De, Nagji Patel, Meera Mukheijee, Jeram Patel, Sushen Ghosh, Balbir S. Katt, Ved Nayar, Mahendra Pandya, Raghav Kaneria, etc.

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